Worship Music and Wolves: Biblical Integration and Critical Thinking

Some of the most popular Christians teachers and theologians are musicians. As Christians, we might listen to a sermon podcast. We might study a book by a professor. But we sing and memorize the theology of musicians. This means that they must be held to the highest standard. Songs are in our minds, on our lips, and in our hearts. James 3:1 says that not many should desire to be teachers because teachers will be judged more strictly than others.

One of the large issues facing the believers today is that our most popular worship musicians are often not from churches with a strong, biblical theology. For example, I believe that “Living Hope” by Phil Wickham and Brian Johnson is one of the best worship songs released recently. It has excellent, moving, and accurate words that poetically express the gospel. However, Brian Johnson’s church, Bethel, is known for errant theology and practice . Likewise, Hillsong pastor Joel Houston stated that “evolution is undeniable,” in reference to a questions about the popular song “So Will I.” (I wrote about that song a few months ago in light of their lyric on evolution.) Hillsong produces many of the most popular worship songs sung today. The list continues. “Death Was Arrested” is a fantastic and valuable worship song. It came out of North Point Church where Andy Stanley is the pastor. He recently made waves by saying that we should “unhitch” from the Old Testament. Let me repeat: many of the most popular Christian, worship songs are coming out of churches that are not teaching in accordance with the historic, Christian faith.

As biblical integrators, we must be working hard to develop the critical-thinking skills of our students. I am not contending that we should stop singing all the songs from churches like Bethel, Hillsong, or North Point. However, I do think that we need to stop singing them uncritically. We don’t want to raise up a generation that trusts a church or band simply because they are  able to write catchy songs. We want our students to develop into young Bereans who test every teaching against the Word (Acts 17:10-12).

This is where we come in. Yes, Bible class and chapel should assist in helping students trust the Bible and navigate its ideas, but much of the work is done in other classes. An English teacher helps students discover which sources are credible. A math teacher assists students in sniffing out faulty logic. A science teacher shows students how to measure and understand reality. A history teacher helps students learn from the mistakes of the past. An art teacher equips students to note the ideas conveyed in various styles and forms. A speech teacher shows brings to light the art of arguments and persuasive techniques.

We are not trying to shield our students from the ideas that these churches and church leaders are promoting. But we must be investing extreme effort to help our students develop the skills needed to assess the situation themselves. They will face dangerous and errant theology throughout their lives. We must prepare them. They need to know what to do when the most popular teachers are peddling attractive heresies. We all know that devil can attack from the outside, but he is even more dangerous when the attack comes from within. As Jesus warned, “Watch out for false prophets. They come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ferocious wolves” (Matt 7:15). Let’s teach our students to critically apply the Word of God to detect falsehood. Souls are on the line.

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Biblical Integration Requires a Good Bible (or Two)

I have written previously about the importance of careful Bible reading. For many reasons, it can be easy to misunderstand what the text is saying. For that reason, I recommend that believers (especially teachers) take these five steps as they read. However, I need to state the obvious here: If you are reading a bad version of the Bible, your interpretation of the Bible will be bad too. The person who listens to the news on a static-filled, choppy radio station will likely miss out or misunderstand. With so many accurate and helpful translations of the Bible in English, there is no reason for us to settle for static. Here are two types of Bibles to avoid using for biblical integration followed by a quick recommendation:

1) Sectarian Versions

Some Bibles have been edited to promote a certain theological standpoint. They are not as interested in accurately transmitting the ancient text to the modern world as they are in promoting a certain type of belief. In essence, those behind these books alter the Bible to be what they want instead of what God wants. Two examples of these Bibles come immediately to mind: The Passion Translation and The New World Translation.

The Passion Translation was written/translated by Brian Simmons to help English speakers experience the passion and fire of the Bible. However, as Andrew G. Shead notes,

He achieves this by abandoning all interest in textual accuracy, playing fast and loose with the original languages, and inserting so much new material into the text that it is at least 50% longer than the original. The result is a strongly sectarian translation that no longer counts as Scripture; by masquerading as a Bible it threatens to bind entire churches in thrall to a false god.”

There are many issues with this book, but among the most serious is that the author adds his own content and re-words the Bible to promote a certain type of theology.  

The New World Translation is put out by the Watchtower Society and is the “translation” used by Jehovah’s Witnesses. This version exists to promote an errant theology. Famously, undermining the doctrines of the Trinity and Christ’s deity, there are many changes made to what the text has stated historically. If a version of the Bible tries to change what the Bible says, we should avoid it.

2) Paraphrases

Some versions of the Bible are not translations, but paraphrases. There is nothing wrong with a paraphrase as a devotional aid. But there is a problem if we use a paraphrase in place of a translation. Why? When we go to the Bible, we want to hear God’s words. When we go to a paraphrase, we are getting a person’s version of God’s words. “The primary problem of any paraphrase of the Bible is that it inputs far too much of a person’s opinion of what the Bible says, instead of simply stating what the Bible says.” The most popular paraphrase is The Message by Eugene Peterson. I am a fan of this book and have learned much from Peterson, but The Message should not be used as a version of the Bible. Another popular paraphrase is The Living Bible.

So what Bible should you use? Well, there is a great book on the topic. This is a complex question, but I would quickly recommend that teachers use an easy-to-understand, but credible version with their classes. The NIV, CSB, or NLT could be good options. However, in your own study, it can be very helpful to compare one of these easy-to-read (dynamic) versions with more formal versions like the ESV, NASB, or KJV. You can often gain helpful insight and accuracy by comparing two different translations.

To sum up: If we want to have accurate biblical integration, let’s use accurate translations of the Bible.

 

What Do Words Mean?: Literature, Government, and the Bible

Merriam-Webster defines a word as “a speech sound or series of speech sounds that symbolizes and communicates a meaning usually without being divisible into smaller units capable of independent use.” One key element of this definition is that words communicate a meaning. Every word means something. But who gets to assign that meaning? Now, the answer may seem obvious, but it has been anything but settled in education for decades.

Steve Cornell of Summit Ministries states, “In a postmodern world, truth and reality are understood to be individually shaped by personal history, social class, gender, culture, and religion.” For postmoderns, the meaning in words is shaped by individuals. This means that a phrase could have as many unique meanings as there are people in the world–upwards of 7 billion.

Christians often seem to think that postmodernism does not affect them, but they are wrong. We see it in our Bible studies every time someone says, “To me, this verse means…” Those who use this phrase are implicitly stating that the text of the Bible legitimately has different meanings to different people. However, this is not the case. None of the Bible or its meaning is determined by the reader. The reader only gets to recognize, understand, and apply what God says. 2 Peter 1:21 is helpful in that it states that the prophets were carried along by the Holy Spirit as they wrote words from God. God has decided what his Book will say and what it will mean. I’ll leave this paragraph at that (though much more could be said) so that we can move toward integration in literature and government.

Literature, by nature, relates to words. Its business is words. Government is possibly just as word-driven. Why? Because laws, treaties, constitutions, and orders are all made up of… you guessed it: words.

In literature, reader-response criticism is a theory that basically says that the meaning of a text is the responsibility of the reader; not the writer. It doesn’t really matter what the poet was writing about. The real meaning is in what the reader understands, feels, or thinks. In government, we can see people try to interpret constitutions as if they are “living,” evolving documents. Instead of trying to hold to what the document originally meant to those who developed it, people try to find out what it should have meant or what it should mean today.

Both reader-response theory and the idea of a living Constitution are related to postmodernism. They are both related to individualism. They are both related to human pride. They say, “I get to decide. My will should be done. My preference is key. My understanding is best. I am in control.” However, as Christians, we understand that words have been endowed with meaning. Yes, we are embedded in culture and time. Yes, authors and framers were embedded in their limited culture too. However, God is above and beyond those things. And, as people made in his image, He has invited us to participate in the use of language with Him.

So what do words mean? They mean what the author intended them to mean. God authored the Bible so He determined its meaning. Harper Lee penned To Kill a Mockingbird so she determined what its words mean. Our founders crafted the US Constitution and, therefore, they determined its meaning.

So what are we after when we read? We want to get to the author’s original intent. Why that word? Why that phrase? It might take work to get to the meaning, but it is fruitless to assign our own meaning. We might enjoy the control, but we are sacrificing the truth. Our task as believers and Christian educators is to understand the Author’s original meaning and then respond rightly to it. Literature and government have been battered by postmodern theories of understanding for a long time. What a wonderful battlefield to help our students see why it is necessary to fight to hear God’s voice. It will require us to humble ourselves and submit to his words, but, while difficult, his words are sweeter than honey to the taste (Ps 119:103).

Here are some concepts for future integration.

In literature: What is the role of an author? What are the consequences when we misunderstand a word or message? If the reader/listener defines the meaning of words/messages, can a promise have any value? What is reader-response criticism? How does our understanding of authorship and meaning affect our understanding of the Bible?

In government: What role do words play in laws, treaties, or orders? Can society function if we cannot agree on meanings of the words in governing documents? What is originalism? What is textualism? What is a living document? How does our understanding of governing documents affect our understanding of the Bible?

Tight Biblical Integration: Examples of “Tight” Integration from Spanish 3

Here is an often overlooked fact: the tighter the biblical integration, the more effective it is. So what is “tight” integration? A tightly integrated course, unit, or lesson is one where course objectives (not just content) and integration objective overlap significantly. In the abstract, that may sound confusing, so let me illustrate using some Spanish 3 content. [Note: I am not a Spanish or grammar expert, so please forgive any silly mistakes in Spanish or grammar. But I think that these concepts will be of help to those of you who are the experts.]

While working to integrate some Spanish unit plans with a friend (who has helped me greatly with this post), we came across a unit plan that included an objective on expressions with conditional and future tenses. The aim is that students would understand the conditional and future tenses. In order to succeed in this unit academically, students must grasp that some ideas, situations, or promises are conditional. Then, they must comprehend what separates the conditional tense from other tenses. Finally, they need to be able to identify the conditional tense and when to use it. Amazingly, tight integration can help with these. Check it out:

Are some statements conditional? Yes. Anything that relates to what a person would do, would like to do, or could do. Examples: 1) I would like to study more, but I don’t have time. Me gustaría estudiar más, pero no tengo tiempo. 2) I would visit, but I don’t have the money to come. Yo visitaría, pero me falta el dinero para ir. 3) If you wouldn’t lie, you wouldn’t have to worry about getting caught. Si no mintieras, no tendrías que preocuparte por las consecuencias.

What separates the conditional from other tenses? These relate to a certain condition that often could change or has changed. Concerning the conditional phrases above, #1’s condition relates to studying (lack of time is affecting study), #2’s relates to a condition of finances (I am in a situation where I don’t have enough money to travel), #3’s is about honesty and worry (those who are in a state of honesty can also be in a state of confidence). Obviously, a Spanish teacher would likely present these ideas and examples in Spanish.

When should I use the conditional tense? Whenever one wonders (“Would she?” or “Could that happen?”), uses conjecture (“They must have known.”), or speaks to a probability/possibility (I would go with you if…”).  Elijah used this type of speech while making fun of Baal’s prophets in 1 Kings 18:27, “At noon Elijah began to taunt them. ‘Shout louder!’ he said. ‘Surely he is a god! Perhaps he is deep in thought, or busy, or traveling. Maybe he is sleeping and must be awakened.’” Balaam also says to his donkey, “If only I had a sword in my hand, I would kill you right now,” (Num 22:29).

You might be thinking, “Kelly, I come here for help in integration. If I knew you you would keep blabbing on about grammar, I would have avoided this article.” (Note: that is a use of the conditional tense.) So how does this help us see tight biblical integration?

First, we can use the Bible’s rich conditional content to help students understand core ideas. When thinking about conditional phrases, we see that there is a world of difference between saying, “I would help you,” and “I will help you.” The first is conditional and the second is future. In John 14:3, it is good that Jesus said “I will come back and take you to be with me.” That future statement is much stronger than a conditional version might have been. However, we also see God using a conditional phrase to long for people to be wise and listen. Look at Deuteronomy 32:29, “If only they were wise and would understand this and discern what their end will be!”

Second, we can understand important theological truths through the vehicle of academics. Conditional phrases can show us following Christ is serious business. Peter wrote, “If they have escaped the corruption of the world by knowing our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ and are again entangled in it and are overcome, they are worse off at the end than they were at the beginning. It would have been better for them not to have known the way of righteousness, than to have known it and then to turn their backs on the sacred command that was passed on to them,” (2 Pet 2:20-21). Did you catch it? “It would have been better…”

Maybe most importantly, tight integration supports academic and worldview learning at the same time. When students think of conditional terms, the biblical worldview can support their understanding of grammar. And their Spanish grammar will help them understand biblical truth. As they learn the grammar that supports correct use of Spanish, they are becoming more and more equipped to understand God and God’s Word. The better they know their Spanish, the better they know what God teaches. The integration objective is fully overlapped with the academic objective. That is tight integration. In this scenario, the better the academics the better the biblical integration because the two have become one.

Now, you might be tempted to say, “Well, if all my lessons were about the conditional tense, this would be easy.” (Note the conditional tense of that sentence.) But I contend that tight integration is more available across a myriad of units. To illustrate, in another Spanish 3 unit, the students learn about the difference between saber and conocer. One word relates to knowing about something (Example: “I know a lot about Michael Jordan. He won six NBA titles.” (Yo sé mucho de Michael Jordan. Ha ganado seis premios del NBA.) and the other relates to knowing something (Example: “I know Michael Jordan well. He is coming to Thanksgiving at my house.” (Yo conozco bien a Michael Jordan. Vendrá a mi casa para celebrar el Día de la Acción de Gracias. ) Couldn’t this be taught in a tightly integrated way to show the difference between knowing about Jesus and really knowing Him? Couldn’t students grasp this important academic concept, have it illustrated by the Bible, and be challenged in their faith at the same time? Yes, yes, and yes.

I will give you one more example. A later unit in Spanish 3 focuses on circumlocution. This is the skill of talking circles around an idea or concept: speaking about something without naming that thing directly. Think of the game Catchphrase in which one tries to get his team to guess a word without saying the word itself. For example, if my word was skunk, I might say, “An animal with black fur and white stripes that may emit a bad smell.” Circumlocution is a valuable teaching methodology because it helps students build a more complete idea of a subject.

The tightly integrating teacher can illustrate and explain the concept of circumlocution with some biblical examples. One simple idea is to have them circumlocute the concept of sin (or other important term).As they think about what the concept really means, their understanding will grow. They might talk about falling short, missing the mark, dishonoring God, divine treason, failure to follow, lack of faith, etc. Therefore, the task of circumlocution in Spanish 3 might provide them with knowledge and and understand that challenges their theology and worldview.

Let me close with two key thoughts:

1) In your biblical integration, you should aim for tightness over creativity every time. Being creative is great, but creativity should be a servant of mission… it is not the mission on its own. The more your integration objectives overlap with your academic objectives the better.

2) Tight integration will help you as a teacher and your student outcomes. This kind of biblical integration, where there is little distinction between biblical objectives and course objectives, will make your class stronger academically and biblically. There should be no tug-of-war between the two areas. When you are tightly integrating, academics supports worldview and worldview supports academics.

Reflective Teaching and Biblical Integration

Yale University’s Center for Teaching and Learning states that reflective teaching is “a self-assessment of teaching, wherein an instructor examines their pedagogy, articulates reasons and strengths for their strategies, and identifies areas for revision or improvement.” As teachers, we are always looking to improve. We want students to learn and grow. We love it when things “click,” and when the “light bulb turns on.” We recognize that, even in areas of success, there is space for bettering our practices.

Since we are a few weeks into the new school year, I think that this is a great time to be reflective about our practice of biblical integration. If you can, carve out about ten minutes for a mini-reflection. I will guide you through it with three E’s–emotions, evidence, and encouragement.

First, concerning integration, examine your emotions: how do you feel integration has been going in your class so far this year? Have your students benefited from it? Have things fit well together? Is it rewarding to you? Has there been a moment or two that stand out in your mind as integration success-stories? The nature of your feelings about biblical integration this year should tell you something about how it is going in your classroom.

Next, let’s look to the evidence. Have your students engaged with biblical worldview concepts in your class? What types of integration have been the most thought-provoking, conversation-generating, or ongoing over time? Have you included biblical integration on any assessments (formal or informal)? If so, how have the students done with that? Has the Bible and its truth had a voice in your classroom on a regular basis? Or is integration only a once-in-a-while thing? If the evidence shows that students are engaging with biblical truth in your classroom regularly you are on a good track.

Lastly, let me offer you encouragement. When we reflect, it is important to let our reflection be broader than ourselves. We must note our situation, our task, and our King.

Teaching is hard. Christian education is hard. Biblical integration has challenges as well. However, Hebrews 4:12 tells us that God’s Word is active and sharp. God has given you an effective tool to use in the classroom. You can’t change a heart, but his Word can. But He hasn’t stopped there. He has done even more than that. He has chosen you for this task of Christian ministry. I love Psalm 115:3, “Our God is in heaven; He does whatever pleases Him.” He can advance his gospel in any way He wants, and He chose you to do it. Why? Because it pleases Him. It pleases God when you make Him known through your subject. It pleases God when you represent Him through your attitude. It pleases God when use your classroom for his glory. Be encouraged if you identified areas of improvement in your biblical integration. Those improvements are simply future opportunities to worship God through our teaching. And they will please Him too.

The Power of Out-of-Class Interaction: Biblical Integration

In Every Bush is Burning, I make the case the biblical integrators should be “incarnational, intentional instigators.” The idea is that Christian educators should model a life of discipleship on purpose while showing conflict between a Christian worldview and others ways of understanding life. While much of this takes place in the classroom, biblical integration must not be caged up there.

Christian educators can show students an important picture of Christianity in the real world at lunch, in meetings, during ceremonies and chapel, in sports or clubs, and wherever else students and teachers interact. And there is inherent power in this out-of-class connection. This power shows up in what I will call the ACDs: application, credibility, and definition (I know, it’s not as good as the ABCs).

In Deuteronomy 6:4-7, we read, “Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one. Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength. These commandments that I give you today are to be on your hearts. Impress them on your children. Talk about them when you sit at home and when you walk along the road, when you lie down and when you get up.” This passage helps us see the need for ACDs. It shows that teaching must happen at home (the usual confines of learning) and on the road (outside of the regular instructional location). Why? Because the rubber always meets the road on the road.

Application – How does this play out in real life?

It is valuable for a parent (or teacher) to instruct a student in the classroom to love God. However, when you speak about these instructions at home and on the road, the student is able to see how these commands look in the world. The teacher who engages with students at lunch, on the playground, before or after classes, and in the halls has the chance to show the intersection of biblical teaching and biblical living.

Credibility – Do you really believe what you say?

Students can spot an artificial person. They have a radar for the fake. When we show them that we believe what we teach through our actions, they will be more invested in listening to us. In other words, if what we teach in the class doesn’t line up with what we are like out of class, it is a problem. But when it does line up, it is beautiful.

Definition – What does a clear picture of your teaching look like?

In Deuteronomy 6, the call is to impress the teachings of God on our children. They need more than vague ideas. This is one of the reasons why Jesus did not just come out of a hidden cave to teach before disappearing. He taught often, but he married his teachings to his actions and called his disciples, “follow me.” It was not enough for Him to say, “You have heard it said… but I say…” His students needed to hear Him speak and watch his life. He said, “Love your neighbor,” and then He showed that command by laying down his life.

So in order to impress God’s teaching on our students, they need the ACDs. They need to see us in our regular instructional areas, but they also need to see that instruction playing out in our lives. Maybe think of it like this: if your classroom interaction is the text, let your out-of-class interaction be the illustration. Together those two things can form an engaging and persuasive textbook for students to learn from.

Hearing the Voice of God: Biblical Integration and Listening to the Spirit

After reading the recent LeadLikeThis article on prayer, a few people came to me saying something like, “Your article helped me to better understand how to speak to God and how to help students do that… but how can I hear Him speaking to me?” This is an important question, so I wanted to answer thoroughly and biblically. If we are followers of Christ, it is necessary that we are able to confidently hear his voice so that we can know Him, love Him, and follow his direction. So where can we turn to hear God’s voice? The first place we go should be Scripture.

Scripture is God’s words (2 Timothy 3:16-17). Therefore, anyone who wants to hear God speak should open up the Bible and read. While popular pastors like Andy Stanley may be telling us to unhitch from parts of the Bible, we recognize that Scripture is filled with God’s own endorsement of his written Word. Psalm 1 says it brings joy. Psalm 18 calls it flawless. Psalm 19 says it is perfect. Psalm 119 says it is a light for our path and the way to purity. Isaiah 40 testifies that it lasts forever. 1 Peter 1 calls it living. And the list could go on and on.

The Bible is only place that a person can go to be 100% sure that he is hearing from God. While the Spirit of God can and does actively lead us, there are others who would as well. Scripture is the key in knowing the voice of God as He leads us. The sheep know the Shepherd’s voice to us (John 10:4) because it is always consistent with his Word to others (Titus 1:2). His voice is always calling us to “crucify the flesh” so that we can walk “in step with the Spirit” (Galatians 5:24-25). We know we are in step with the desires of the Spirit when we live according to the Word of the Spirit. The Bereans pleased God and were called noble because they tested Paul’s preaching against Scripture (Acts 17:11). As a result of their use of the Word, many believed (Acts 17:12).

As evangelical Christians, we call this trust in God’s Word the sufficiency of Scripture: that everything we need to know in order to follow God in this life is found in the Bible. 2 Timothy 3:17 says that Scripture thoroughly equips God’s servants for every good work. “Every good work” includes your work as a biblically integrating teacher. The Bible is sufficient for leading you because it is God’s own words.

What about the Holy Spirit? Doesn’t He speak today? Yes… notably through the Bible. Look at 2 Peter 1:20-21:

Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture came about by the prophet’s own interpretation of things. For prophecy never had its origin in the human will, but prophets, though human, spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.

The Holy Spirit is the Author and Originator of the Bible. Those who want to hear the Spirit’s voice need only open his book. He has given it to us. And He wants us to go to the Word since it is the “sword of the Spirit” (Ephesians 6:17). There is no distinction between the words of the Holy Spirit and the words of the Bible. Hebrews 4:12 says that the Word of God is living and active, and that Word is the Spirit’s Word.

So how does the Bible lead the Christian teacher? Through the illumination of the Holy Spirit. Not only did the Spirit of God inspire the text of Scripture, He also applies it to us. He reminds God’s people about the Person and work of Jesus (John 14:26). In that way, the Holy Spirit points away from Himself and to the glory of Christ (John 16:14). This is not because He is lower or less than Christ (He is not), but because each Member of the Trinity has different roles. We see these differentiated roles in the gospel: the Father sent the Son (John 3:16), the Son lived and died (Romans 5:8), the Spirit raised the Son from the dead (Romans 8:11). We can also clearly see the roles of the Trinity in creation, in Jesus’ baptism, and in God’s work of drawing us to Himself. Likewise, each Member of the Trinity has a different role in speaking to us. The Spirit “carried along” human writers as He authored Scripture through them. But the Bible is complete (Revelation 22:18-19), so what does the Spirit do now that his canon is closed? One pastor sums it up well:

“The Holy Spirit’s role is to empower us as we preach, teach, write, talk, witness, think, serve, and live. He does lead us into God’s truth and direct us into God’s will for our lives. But He does it through God’s Word, never apart from it.”

The Spirit works all the time in our world in real ways. He guides us. He convicts us. He reminds us. He encourages us. He is alive and active. And He does all of those things in conjunction with his perfect Word. The Spirit has said all that need be said in his Word, and the complete faith has been handed down once and for all in the Bible (Jude 3). Thank the Spirit for that! And ask Him to bring his own words to bear on our lives through his active ministry.

And, of course, a strong belief in the sufficiency of Scripture does not in any way diminish our confidence in the supernatural God’s ability to do supernatural things. The message of the Good News is a perfect picture of the supernatural Word in action since the gospel is the power of God for salvation to all who believe (Romans 1:16). Faith is a supernatural gift that the Spirit gives through the hearing of the Word about Christ (Romans 10:17). Our God works in wondrous ways and He does as He pleases. But any miraculous works we see are servants of the miraculous Word since Scripture cannot be broken (John 10:35), and God does not contradict Himself. Those who love to please the Spirit should love to honor his priority on the Word.

The Spirit may use any number of means to illuminate and apply the Scripture to our lives as He pleases. Through the Word, the Spirit tells us to love our neighbor (Mark 12:31). He then shows us how to love our neighbor, convicts us when we don’t, and gives us the power to love like He does. Therefore, we must recognize that all of God’s supernatural works are meant to point us back to his voice as revealed in the Bible. The Bible is the Spirit’s voice and He is invested in letting it ring out clearly in our minds and hearts.

So to close: What kind of person pleases God? The one who trembles at his Word (Isaiah 66:2). What kind of teacher pleases God? The one who trembles at his Word and rightly handles that Word (2 Timothy 2:15). If you want to hear God speak, look to his Word and tremble. The Spirit of God will work through his Word in you and in your class. If you want to lead your students to hear God’s voice, call them to tremble at his Word as well. How do we hear his voice? We go to his Word.